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Hardware-software complex of pulse diagnosis PULS-AS

Traditional aspects of pulse diagnostic



Diagnosis on the pulses is one of the basic methods of diagnosis of the classical Chinese medicine.

Many attempts were done to generalize and to systematize the descriptions of different pathologic pulses with the aid of the lingual and graphic symbols. However, the specific character of tactile perception, the impossibility to exclude subjective moment so they did not make possible to create objective united tongue. The difficulty of task is aggravated by the fact that before different Chinese treatises are encountered the different descriptions and the interpretations of pulses, frequently which do not coincide between themselves. This is connected, partly, with the fact that in China, ruled different religious- philosophical systems, each of which had their own ideas about the structure of the universe, about the effect of energy, about the functions of body and the like, which, correspondingly, gave birth to different descriptions and interpretations of the pulse.

Classical Chinese medical diagnosis almost always is limited to the wrist pulse.
It is based on the idea in the region of the radiocarpal joint beyond the radiation artery (section to tsun-kou) is located "beginning and the end" of all meridians, before they are heard out the pulses from all internal organs. The points of pulses are located beyond the meridian of lungs and called: cun, guan, chi.
It is felt by placing three fingers at the radial artery , testing each arm one at a time. The classic Chinese pattern of pulse taking is based on touching the wrist with three levels of pressure: superficial palpation (almost no pressure, to feel the bounding of the pulse up to the skin surface); intermediate palpation (light pressure, to feel the basic pulse form); and deep palpation (somewhat heavy pressure, to feel how the pulse is able to emerge from the physical constraint). In addition, the changes in pulse feeling as one moves from less to more pressure, and again from more to less pressure, can also give some information about the resilience of the pulse.

The current understanding is that the left wrist presents information for the heart, liver, and kidney, while the right wrist presents information for the lung, spleen, and pericardium/triple burner system. This classification is consistent with the five element system that depicts five basic viscera.

Factors to consider befor and during examination:

1. The patient must be relaxed and have not undertaken any vigorous activity for some time prior to the pulse taking. It is generally thought that the pulse should be felt in the morning to get the best reading.

2. The patient's arm, wrist, and hand must be relaxed, with the hand supported on a small pillow or other object; the hand is below the heart, at about the location of the navel as the person sits.

3. The placement of the physician's fingers are at the "cun", "guan", and "chi" positions. The middle finger is placed over the eminent head of the radius and the other two fingers are placed adjacent to that one, but usually not touching one another or just barely touching (the separation of fingers depends on the size of the patient, being greater in those who are tall and have long arms, and less in patients who are relatively smaller), along the artery. The wide range of body types that are encountered in the modern practice make it more difficult to place the fingers properly to feel the pulse.

4. Adequate duration of pulse diagnosis is allowed to assure that the pulse description holds true over many pulsations, and that both arms are checked in order to give a full evaluation.

5. One must take into account the season. Although there is great detail in describing seasonal influences on the pulse in traditional texts, a most general depiction is: the spring pulse is slightly taut (bowstring); the summer pulse is slightly full and surging; the autumn pulse somewhat floating and fine or soft; and the winter pulse somewhat sinking and slippery or hard. If the pulse type is consistent with the season, that indicates a normal condition, while if it differs markedly, it suggests a pathological condition.

6. One must take into account patient characteristics that influence the pulse.
In a healthy person, the front position tends to be floating, while the rear position is usually submerged. Athletes often have a slow pulse, young children have quick pulses. Fat people have deep pulses, while thin people have pulses with a tendency to be bigger than normal. Woman's pulses are usually softer and slightly quicker than men's. Also, women's right pulses are usually stronger than their left, while the opposite is true of men.

7. Numerous changes can take place within a man's body under natural physical condition, so can variations of normal pulse condition. Such variations will be within certain limits and still bear the basic features of the normal pulse condition. Theoretically , the demarcation line between variation of normal pulse condition and diseased pulse condition is not clear cut. Diseases pulse conditions: a) are attended with symptoms and signs corresponding to the pulse conditions; b) cannot be explained by the external factors that may affect pulse condition [e.g., age, sex, physical constitution, season, etc.]; c) remain abnormal after the external factors seemingly affecting the pulse are removed unless effective treatment is applied.

The classical scheme of the measurement pulse in TCM


The development of modern electronics and computer technology has allowed us to create a computerized system for measuring pulse characteristics in real time with high accuracy. Measurement of pulse wave processes is performed using special acoustic transducer pulse wave, is connected to the computer. Automatic recording and processing of pulse curves is performed using software, which used long experience of pulse diagnosis Oriental medicine. Special technique allows to obtain a large amount of information, reflecting the functional status of all internal organs and systems, and to make diagnostic conclusions with a high degree of objectivity and reliability.

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